Symptoms - Bipolar disorder feeling sad, hopeless, or irritable most of the time, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating and remembering things, loss of interest in daily activities, feeling empty or worthless, feelings of guilt and despair, feeling pessimistic about everything, self-doubt. Mania and hypomania are two different types of episodes, but they have the same symptoms. Mania is more severe than hypomania and causes more noticeable problems at work, school, and social activities, as well as difficulties in relationships. Mania can also trigger a break with reality (psychosis) and require hospitalization.
There are three types of bipolar disorder:. All three types involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “haughty”, euphoric, irritable, or energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to periods of very “depressed”, sad, indifferent or hopeless behavior (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes.
Despite many similarities, certain symptoms are more common in bipolar depression than in regular depression. For example, bipolar depression is more likely to involve irritability, guilt, unpredictable mood swings, and feelings of restlessness. With bipolar depression, you may move and talk slowly, sleep a lot, and gain weight. In addition, you are more likely to develop psychotic depression, a condition in which you lose touch with reality and experience significant problems with work and social functioning.
A mixed episode of bipolar disorder has symptoms of mania or hypomania and depression. Common signs of a mixed episode include depression combined with agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, distraction, and racing thoughts. This combination of high energy and low mood makes the risk of suicide particularly high. A diagnosis of bipolar II disorder means that it is common to have symptoms of depression.
You have had at least 1 period of major depression. And at least 1 period of hypomania instead of mania. A key feature of bipolar I disorder is manic episodes. To meet the criteria for bipolar I disorder, you must have had at least one manic episode in your lifetime for at least one week with or without having experienced a depressive episode.
Time spent on symptoms of depression, meanwhile, outnumbers time spent on hypomanic symptoms by about 35 to one in people with bipolar II disorder. Many people with bipolar disorder who receive the right treatment can lead full and productive lives. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes changes in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function. Other possible diagnoses, besides bipolar disorder, that should be considered in the context of symptoms such as these include unipolar (major) depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, adjustment disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and personality disorders such as personality.
Bipolar disorder can affect many different aspects of daily life, including energy levels and sleep. The time spent on symptoms of depression also usually exceeds the time spent on mania symptoms in bipolar I disorder by about three to one, although the most severe mania in bipolar I disorder is generally easier to identify. Cyclothymic disorder is a milder form of bipolar disorder that involves many mood swings, with hypomania and depressive symptoms occurring frequently. Some people with bipolar disorder develop “rapid cycles” in which they experience four or more episodes of mania or depression in a 12-month period.
People with bipolar I disorder also often have depressive episodes, but a depressive episode is not required to make a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. A careful medical history is essential to ensure that bipolar disorder is not confused with major depression. In addition, bipolar disorder has been linked to anxiety, substance abuse, and health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, migraines, and high blood pressure. People with certain types of bipolar disorder, such as bipolar II disorder, experience hypomania, which is a less severe form of mania.
And unlike common mood swings, bipolar disorder mood swings are so intense that they can interfere with your work or school performance, damage your relationships, and disrupt your ability to function in daily life. Health care providers sometimes prescribe antidepressant medications to treat depressive episodes in bipolar disorder, combining the antidepressant with a mood stabilizer to prevent a manic episode from triggering. Because bipolar disorder can cause serious disruption to a person's daily life and create a stressful family situation, family members can also benefit from professional resources, particularly mental health advocacy and support groups. .